# Introduction to Singletons (Part 1)

Real dependent types are coming to Haskell soon! Until then, we have the great singletons library :)

(Note: This post series has been written and updated to follow singletons-2.6.)

If you’ve ever run into dependently typed programming in Haskell, you’ve probably encountered mentions of singletons (and the singletons library). This series of articles will be my attempt at giving you the story of the library, the problems it solves, the power that it gives to you, and how you can integrate it into your code today!1 (Also, after my previous April Fools post, people have been asking me for an actual non-joke singletons post)

This post (Part 1) will go over first using the singleton pattern for reflection, then introducing how the singletons library helps us. Part 2 will discuss using the library for reification, to get types that depend on values at runtime. Part 3 will go into the basics of promoting functions values to become functions on types in a usable, and Part 4 will go deeper into the lifting of functions, using singleton’s defunctionalization scheme to utilize the higher-order functions we love at the type level. Part 3 will go into the basics singleton’s

I definitely am writing this post with the hope that it will be obsolete in a year or two. When dependent types come to Haskell, singletons will be nothing more than a painful historical note. But for now, singletons might be the best way to get your foot into the door and experience the thrill and benefits of dependently typed programming today!

### Prerequisites

These posts will assume no knowledge of dependent types, and, for now, only basic to intermediate Haskell knowledge (Types, kinds, typeclasses, data types, functions). The material in this post overlaps with my dependently typed neural networks series, but the concepts are introduced in different contexts.

All code is built on GHC 8.6.1 and with the nightly-2018-09-29 snapshot (so, singletons-2.5). However, unless noted, all of the code should still work with GHC 8.4 and singletons-2.4.

The content in the first section of this post, describing the singleton design pattern, uses the following extensions:

• DataKinds
• KindSignatures
• RankNTypes

With some optional “convenience extensions”

• LambdaCase
• TypeApplications

And the second section, introducing the singletons library itself, uses, additionally:

• TypeFamilies

These extension will be explained when they are used or become relevant.

## The Phantom of the Types

(The code for this pre-singletons section is available on github)

Phantom types in Haskell are a very simple way to add a layer of “type safety” for your types and DSL’s. It helps you restrict what values functions can take and encode pre- and post-conditions directly into your types.

For example, in

data Foo a = MkFoo

The a parameter is phantom, because nothing of type a in the data type…it just exists as a dummy parameter for the Foo type. We can use MkFoo without ever requiring something of type a:

ghci> :t MkFoo :: Foo Int
Foo Int
ghci> :t MkFoo :: Foo Bool
Foo Bool
ghci> :t MkFoo :: Foo Either      -- requires -XPolyKinds where 'Foo' is defined
Foo Either
ghci> :t MkFoo :: Foo Monad       -- requires -XConstraintKinds
Foo Monad

One use case of phantom type parameters is to prohibit certain functions on different types of values and let you be more descriptive with how your functions work together (like in safe-money). One “hello world” use case of phantom type parameters is to tag data as “sanitized” or “unsanitized” (UserString 'Sanitized type vs. UserString 'Unsanitized) or paths as absolute or relative (Path 'Absolute vs. Path 'Relative). For a simple example, let’s check out a simple DSL for a type-safe door:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L11-L15

data DoorState = Opened | Closed | Locked
deriving (Show, Eq)

data Door (s :: DoorState) = UnsafeMkDoor { doorMaterial :: String }
-- requires -XDataKinds

A couple things going on here:

1. Our type we are going to be playing with is a Door, which contains a single field doorMaterial describing, say, the material that the door is made out of. (UnsafeMkDoor "Oak" would be an oak door)

2. We’re using the DataKinds extension to create both the type DoorState as well as the kind DoorState.

Normally, data DoorState = Opened | Closed | Locked in Haskell defines the type DoorState and the value constructors Opened, Closed, and Locked.

However, with DataKinds, that statement also defines a new kind DoorState, with type constructors 'Opened, 'Closed, and 'Locked. (note the ' ticks!)2

ghci> :k 'Opened
DoorState
ghci> :k 'Locked
DoorState
1. We’re defining the Door type with a phantom parameter s. It’s a phantom type because we don’t actually have any values of type s in our data type3 …the s is only just there as a dummy parameter for the type.

We can use UnsafeMkDoor without ever using anything of type s. In reality, a real Door type would be a bit more complicated (and the direct UnsafeMkDoor constructor would be hidden).

ghci> :t UnsafeMkDoor "Birch" :: Door 'Opened
Door 'Opened
ghci> :t UnsafeMkDoor "Iron" :: Door 'Locked
Door 'Locked

We can also use the TypeApplications extension to write this in a bit more convenient way –

ghci> :t UnsafeMkDoor @'Opened "Birch"
Door 'Opened
ghci> :t UnsafeMkDoor @'Locked "Iron"
Door 'Locked

Alternatively, we can define Door using GADT syntax (which requires the GADTs extension)4.

data Door :: DoorState -> Type where
UnsafeMkDoor :: { doorMaterial :: String } -> Door s

This is defining the exact same type in the alternate “GADT syntax” style of data type declaration – here, we define types by giving the type of its constructors, UnsafeMkDoor :: String -> Door s.

Door here is an indexed data type, which is sometimes called a “type family” in the dependently typed programming world (which is not to be confused with type families in GHC Haskell, -XTypeFamilies, which is a language mechanism that is related but definitely not the same).

### Phantoms in Action

At first, this seems a bit silly. Why even have the extra type parameter if you don’t ever use it?

Well, right off the bat, we can write functions that expect only a certain type of Door, and return a specific type of Door:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L17-L18

closeDoor :: Door 'Opened -> Door 'Closed
closeDoor (UnsafeMkDoor m) = UnsafeMkDoor m

So, the closeDoor function will only take a Door 'Opened (an opened door). And it will return a Door 'Closed (a closed door).

ghci> let myDoor = UnsafeMkDoor @'Opened "Spruce"
ghci> :t myDoor
Door 'Opened
ghci> :t closeDoor myDoor
Door 'Closed
ghci> let yourDoor = UnsafeMkDoor @'Closed "Acacia"
ghci> :t closeDoor yourDoor
TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!

You can think of this as a nice way of catching logic errors at compile-time. If your door type did not have its status in the type, the closeDoor could have been given a closed or locked door, and you’d have to handle and reject it at runtime.

By adding the state of the door into its type, we can encode our pre-conditions and post-conditions directly into the type. And any opportunity to move runtime errors to compile-time errors should be celebrated with a party!

This would also stop you from doing silly things like closing a door twice in a row:

ghci> :t closeDoor . closeDoor
TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!

Do you see why?

With a couple of state transitions, we can write compositions that are type-checked to all be legal:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L20-L24

lockDoor :: Door 'Closed -> Door 'Locked
lockDoor (UnsafeMkDoor m) = UnsafeMkDoor m

openDoor :: Door 'Closed -> Door 'Opened
openDoor (UnsafeMkDoor m) = UnsafeMkDoor m
ghci> :t closeDoor . openDoor
Door 'Closed -> Door 'Closed
ghci> :t lockDoor . closeDoor . openDoor
Door 'Closed -> Door 'Locked
ghci> :t lockDoor . openDoor
TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!

Because of the type of lockDoor, you cannot lock an opened door! Don’t even try! You’d have to close it first.

ghci> let myDoor = UnsafeMkDoor @'Opened "Spruce"
ghci> :t myDoor
Door 'Opened
ghci> :t lockDoor
Door 'Closed -> Door 'Closed
ghci> :t lockDoor myDoor
TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!  TYPE ERROR!
ghci> :t closeDoor myDoor
Door 'Closed
ghci> :t lockDoor (closeDoor myDoor)
Door 'Locked

lockDoor expects a Door 'Closed, so if you give it a Door 'Opened, that’s a static compile-time type error. But, closeDoor takes a Door 'Opened and returns a Door 'Closed – so that is something that you can call lockDoor with!

### The Phantom Menace

However, in standard Haskell, we quickly run into some practical problems if we program with phantom types this way.

For example, how could we write a function to get the state of a door?

doorStatus :: Door s -> DoorState
doorStatus _ = -- ?

(It can be done with an ad-hoc typeclass, but it’s not simple, and it’s prone to implementation bugs)

And, perhaps even more important, how can you create a Door with a given state that isn’t known until runtime? If we know the type of our doors at compile-time, we can just explicitly write UnsafeMkDoor "Iron" :: Door 'Opened or UnsafeMkDoor @'Opened "Iron". But what if we wanted to make a door based on a DoorState value? Something we might not get until runtime?

mkDoor :: DoorState -> String -> Door s
mkDoor Opened = -- ?
mkDoor Closed = -- ?
mkDoor Locked = -- ?

Ah hah, you say. That’s easy!

mkDoor :: DoorState -> String -> Door s
mkDoor Opened = UnsafeMkDoor
mkDoor Closed = UnsafeMkDoor
mkDoor Locked = UnsafeMkDoor

Unfortunately, that’s not how types work in Haskell. Remember that for a polymorphic type forall s. DoorState -> String -> Door s, the caller picks the type variable.

ghci> :t mkDoor Opened "Acacia" :: Door 'Closed
Door 'Closed

Oops!

### The Fundamental Issue in Haskell

We’ve hit upon a fundamental issue in Haskell’s type system: type erasure. In Haskell, types only exist at compile-time, for help with type-checking. They are completely erased at runtime.

This is usually what we want. It’s great for performance, and you can bypass things like the ad-hoc runtime type checking that you have to deal with in dynamic languages like python.

But in our case, it makes functions like doorState fundamentally impossible. Or, does it?

## The Singleton Pattern

A singleton in Haskell is a type (of kind Type – that is, *) that has exactly one inhabitant. In practice (and when talking about the design pattern), it refers to a parameterized type that, for each pick of parameter, gives a type with exactly one inhabitant. It is written so that pattern matching on the constructor of that value reveals the unique type parameter.

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L26-L29

data SDoorState :: DoorState -> Type where
SOpened :: SDoorState 'Opened
SClosed :: SDoorState 'Closed
SLocked :: SDoorState 'Locked

Here we’re using GADT syntax again (but to make an actual GADT). (Also note that Type is a synonym for the * kind, exported from the Data.Kind module) So, if we use SOpened, we will get a SDoorState 'Opened. And if we have a SDoorState 'Opened, we know that it was constructed using SOpened. Essentially, this gives us three values:

SOpened :: SDoorState 'Opened
SClosed :: SDoorState 'Closed
SLocked :: SDoorState 'Locked

### The Power of the Pattern Match

The power of singletons is that we can now pattern match on types, essentially.

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L17-L35

closeDoor :: Door 'Opened -> Door 'Closed

lockDoor :: Door 'Closed -> Door 'Locked

lockAnyDoor :: SDoorState s -> Door s -> Door 'Locked
lockAnyDoor sng door = case sng of
SOpened -> lockDoor (closeDoor door) -- in this branch, s is 'Opened
SClosed -> lockDoor door             -- in this branch, s is 'Closed
SLocked -> door                      -- in this branch, s is 'Locked

lockAnyDoor is a function that can take a door of any state (a Door s of any s) and lock it using a composition of lockDoor or closeDoor as necessary.

If we have lockAnyDoor take a SDoorState s as its input (and, importantly, make sure that the s in SDoorState s is the same s in the Door s), we can pattern match on the SDoorState s to reveal what s is, to the type checker. This is known as a dependent pattern match.

• If SDoorState s’s pattern match goes down the SOpened -> case, then we know that s ~ 'Opened5. We know that s must be 'Opened, because SOpened :: SDoorState 'Opened, so there really isn’t anything else the s in SDoorState s could be!

So, if we know that s ~ 'Opened, that means that the Door s is Door 'Opened. So because door :: Door' Opened, we have to closeDoor it to get a Door' Closed, and then lockDoor it to get a Door 'Locked

We say that SOpened is a runtime witness to s being 'Opened.

• Same for the SClosed -> branch – since SClosed :: SDoorState 'Closed, then s ~ 'Closed, so our Door s must be a Door 'Closed. This allows us to simply take our door :: Door 'Closed and use lockDoor to get a Door 'Locked

• For the SLocked -> branch, SLocked :: SDoorState 'Locked, so s ~ 'Locked, so our Door s is a Door 'Locked. Our door is “already” locked, so we can just use the door :: Door 'Locked that we got!

Essentially, our singletons give us runtime values that can be used as witnesses for types and type variables. These values exist at runtime, so they “bypass” type erasure. Types themselves are directly erased, but we can hold on to them using these runtime tokens when we need them.

Note that we can also write lockAnyDoor using the LambdaCase extension syntactic sugar, which I think offers a lot of extra insight:

lockAnyDoor :: SDoorState s -> (Door s -> Door 'Locked)
lockAnyDoor = \case
SOpened -> lockDoor . closeDoor  -- in this branch, s is 'Opened
SClosed -> lockDoor              -- in this branch, s is 'Closed
SLocked -> id                    -- in this branch, s is 'Locked

Here, we can see lockAnyDoor sng as a partially applied function that returns a Door s -> Door 'Locked For any SDoorState s you give to lockAnyDoor, lockAnyDoor returns a “locker function” (Door s -> Door 'Locked) that is custom-made for your SDoorState:

• lockAnyDoor SOpened will return a Door 'Opened -> Door 'Locked. Here, it has to give lockDoor . closeDoor :: Door 'Opened -> Door 'Locked.

• lockAnyDoor SClosed will return a Door 'Closed -> Door 'Locked – namely lockDoor :: Door 'Closed -> Door 'Locked.

• lockAnyDoor SLocked will return a Door 'Locked -> Door 'Locked, which will just be id :: Door 'Locked -> Door 'Locked

Note that all of these functions will only typecheck under the branch they fit in. If we gave lockDoor for the SOpened branch, or id for the SClosed branch, that’ll be a compile-time error!

#### Reflection

Writing doorStatus is now pretty simple –

doorStatus :: SDoorState s -> Door s -> DoorState
doorStatus SOpened _ = Opened
doorStatus SClosed _ = Closed
doorStatus SLocked _ = Locked

The benefit of the singleton again relies on the fact that the s in SDoorState s is the same as the s in Door s, so if the user gives a SDoorState s, it has to match the s in the Door s they give.

Since we don’t even care about the door, we could also just write:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L37-L40

fromSDoorState :: SDoorState s -> DoorState
fromSDoorState SOpened = Opened
fromSDoorState SClosed = Closed
fromSDoorState SLocked = Locked

Which we can use to write a nicer doorStatus

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L42-L43

doorStatus :: SDoorState s -> Door s -> DoorState
doorStatus s _ = fromSDoorState s

This process – of turning a type variable (like s) into a dynamic runtime value is known as reflection. We move a value from the type level to the term level.

### Recovering Implicit Passing

One downside is that we are required to manually pass in our witness. Wouldn’t it be nice if we could have it be passed implicitly? We can actually leverage typeclasses to give us this ability:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L45-L53

class SingDSI s where
singDS :: SDoorState s

instance SingDSI 'Opened where
singDS = SOpened
instance SingDSI 'Closed where
singDS = SClosed
instance SingDSI 'Locked where
singDS = SLocked

(Note that it’s impossible to write our SingDSI instances improperly! GHC checks to make sure that this is correct)

And so now we can do:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L55-L59

lockAnyDoor_ :: SingDSI s => Door s -> Door 'Locked
lockAnyDoor_ = lockAnyDoor singDS

doorStatus_ :: SingDSI s => Door s -> DoorState
doorStatus_ = doorStatus singDS

Here, type inference will tell GHC that you want singDS :: SDoorState s, and it will pull out the proper singleton for the door you want to check!

Now, we can call lockAnyDoor_ without passing in a singleton, explicitly!

ghci> let myDoor = UnsafeMkDoor @'Opened "Birch"
ghci> :t lockAnyDoor SOpened myDoor -- our original method!
Door 'Locked
ghci> :t lockAnyDoor singDS myDoor  -- the power of type inference!
Door 'Locked
ghci> :t lockAnyDoor_ myDoor        -- no explicit singleton being passed!
Door 'Locked

#### The Same Power

In Haskell, a constraint SingDSI s => is essentially the same as passing in SDoorState s explicitly. Either way, you are passing in a runtime witness that your function can use. You can think of SingDSI s => as passing it in implicitly, and SDoorState s -> as passing it in explicitly.

So, it’s important to remember that lockAnyDoor and lockAnyDoor_ are the “same function”, with the same power. They are just written in different styles – lockAnyDoor is written in explicit style, and lockAnyDoor_ is written in implicit style.

#### Going backwards

Going from SingDSI s => to SDoorState s -> (implicit to explicit) is very easy – just use singDS to get a SDoorState s if you have a SingDSI s constraint available. This is what we did for lockAnyDoor_ and doorStatus_.

Going from SDoorState s -> to SingDSI s => (explicit to implicit) in Haskell is actually a little trickier. The typical way to do this is with a CPS-like utility function:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L61-L65

withSingDSI :: SDoorState s -> (SingDSI s => r) -> r
withSingDSI sng x = case sng of
SOpened -> x
SClosed -> x
SLocked -> x

withSingDSI takes a SDoorState s, and a value (of type r) that requires a SingDSI s instance to be created. And it creates that value for you!

To use x, you must have a SingDSI s instance available. This all works because in each branch, s is now a specific, monomorphic, “concrete” s, and GHC knows that such an instance exists for every branch.

• In the SOpened branch, s ~ 'Opened. We explicitly wrote an instance of SingDSI for 'Opened, so GHC knows that there is a SingDSI 'Opened instance in existence, allowing you to use/create x.
• In the SClosed branch, s ~ 'Closed, so GHC knows that there is a SingDSI 'Closed instance (because we wrote one explicitly!), and gives that to you – and so you are allowed to use/create x.
• In the SLocked branch, s ~ 'Locked, and because we wrote a SingDSI 'Locked explicitly, we know that a SingDSI s instance is available, so we can use/create x.

Now, we can run our implicit functions (like lockAnyDoor_) by giving them explicit inputs:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L67-L68

lockAnyDoor__ :: SDoorState s -> Door s -> Door 'Locked
lockAnyDoor__ s d = withSingDSI s (lockAnyDoor_ d)

And the cycle begins anew.

One interesting thing to point out – note that the type of withSingDSI is very similar to the type of another common combinator:

withSingDSI :: SDoorState s -> (SingDSI s => r) -> r
flip  ($) :: a -> ( a -> r) -> r Which is a bit of a testament to what we said earlier about how a SingDSI s => ..) is the same as SDoorState s -> ... flip ($) takes a value and a function and applies the function to that value. withSingDSI takes a value and “something like a function” and applies the “something like a function” to that value.

### Fun with Witnesses

We can write a nice version of mkDoor using singletons:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/Door.hs#L70-L71

mkDoor :: SDoorState s -> String -> Door s
mkDoor _ = UnsafeMkDoor

We take advantage of the fact that SDoorState s “locks in” the s type variable for Door s. We can call it now with values of SDoorState:

ghci> :t mkDoor SOpened "Oak"
Door 'Opened
ghci> :t mkDoor SLocked "Spruce"
Door 'Locked

Now we can’t do something silly like pass in SLocked to get a Door 'Opened.

## The Singletons Library

(The code for this post-singletons section is available on github)

Now that we understand some of the benefits of singletons as they relate to phantom types, we can appreciate what the singletons library has to offer: a fully unified, coherent system for working with singletons of almost all Haskell types!

First, there’s Template Haskell for generating our singletons given our type:

data DoorState = Opened | Closed | Locked
deriving (Show, Eq)

genSingletons [''DoorState]

-- or
-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/DoorSingletons.hs#L22-L25

$(singletons [d| data DoorState = Opened | Closed | Locked deriving (Show, Eq) |]) This generates, for us: -- not the actual code, but essentially what happens data SDoorState :: DoorState -> Type where SOpened :: Sing 'Opened SClosed :: Sing 'Closed SLocked :: Sing 'Locked -- Sing x becomes a "type synonym" for SDoorState x when x is a DoorState type instance Sing = SDoorState Sing is a poly-kinded type constructor (a “data family”). STrue :: Sing 'True is the singleton for 'True, SJust SOpened :: Sing ('Just 'Opened) is the singleton for 'Just 'Opened, etc. It also generates us instances for SingI, a poly-kinded typeclass: instance SingI 'Opened where sing = SOpened instance SingI 'Closed where sing = SClosed instance SingI 'Locked where sing = SLocked Which is basically our SingDSI typeclass, except we have instances for singletons of all kinds! (heh) There’s a SingI instance for 'True, a SingI instance for 10, a SingI instance for 'Just 'Opened, etc.: -- Sing x becomes a "type synonym" for SBool x when x is a Boolean ghci> sing :: Sing 'True STrue ghci> sing :: Sing ('Just 'Opened) SJust SOpened We also have withSingI, which is equivalent to our withSingDSI function earlier.6 withSingI :: Sing s -> (SingI s => r) -> r Note that if you have singletons for a kind k, you also have instances for kind Maybe k, as well. And also for [k], even! The fact that we have a unified way of working with and manipulating singletons of so many different types is a major advantage of using the singletons library to manage your singletons instead of writing them yourself. ghci> :t SOpened SCons SClosed SCons SLocked SCons SNil Sing '[ 'Opened, 'Closed, 'Locked ] -- 'SCons is the singleton for : (cons), -- and 'SNil is the singleton for [] (nil) (Remember that, because of DataKinds, Maybe is a kind constructor, who has two type constructors, the type 'Nothing and the type constructor 'Just :: k -> Maybe k) Singletons for all kinds integrate together seamlessly, and you have mechanisms to generate them for your own type and roll it all into the system! ### Extra Goodies In addition to generating singletons for our libraries, it gives us convenient functions for working with the different “manifestations” of our types. Recall that DoorState has four different things associated with it now: 1. The type DoorState, whose value constructors are Opened, Closed, and Locked. 2. The kind DoorState, whose type constructors are 'Opened, 'Closed, and 'Locked 3. The singletons for 'Opened, 'Closed, and 'Locked: SOpened :: Sing 'Opened -- a "synonym" for SDoorState 'Opened SClosed :: Sing 'Closed -- a "synonym" for SDoorState 'Closed SLocked :: Sing 'Locked -- a "synonym" for SDoorState 'Locked 4. The SingI instances for 'Opened, 'Closed, and 'Locked' Kind of confusing, and in the future, when we have real dependent types, we can combine all of these manifestations into the one thing. But for now, we do have to deal with converting between them, and for that, singletons generates for us fromSing :: Sing (s :: DoorState) -> DoorState. fromSing takes us from singletons to term-level values (reflection): ghci> fromSing SOpened Opened It does this by defining a type class (actually, a “kind class”), SingKind, associating each type to the corresponding datakinds-generated kind. The SingKind instance for DoorState links the type DoorState to the kind DoorState. There are definitely more useful utility functions, but we will investigate these later on in the series! For now, you can look at the documentation for the library to see more interesting utility functions! ## The Singularity In this post, at shortcomings in the usage of phantom types, and then saw how singletons could help us with these. Then, we looked at how the singletons library makes using this pattern extremely easy and smooth to integrate into your existing code. You can see all of the “manual singletons” code in this post here, and then see the code re-implemented using the singletons library here. You can actually drop into a ghci session with all of the bindings in scope by executing the files: $ ./Door.hs

However, remember the question that I asked earlier, about creating a Door with a given state that we don’t know until runtime? So far, we are only able to create Door and SDoorState from types we know at compile-time. There is no way we have yet to convert a DoorState from the value level to the type level – so it seems that there is no way to “load” a Door s with an s that depends on, say, a file’s contents, or user input. The fundamental issue is still type erasure.

In Part 2, we will delve into how to overcome this and break through from the barrier of the dynamic “unsafe” runtime to the world of safe, typed, verified code, and see how the singletons library gives us great tools for this. Afterwards, in Part 3, we will learn to express more complicated relationships with types and type-level functions using defunctionalization and the tools from the singletons library, and finally break into the world of actual “type-level programming”.

As always, let me know in the comments if you have any questions! You can also usually find me idling on the freenode #haskell channel, as well, as jle. The singletons issue tracker is also very active. Happy haskelling!

For further reading, check out the original singletons paper! It’s very readable and goes over many of the same techniques in this blog post, just written with a different perspective and tone :)

## Exercises

Click on the links in the corner of the text boxes for solutions! (or just check out the source file)

These should be written in the singletons library style, with Sing instead of SDoorState and SingI instead of SingDSI. Review the singletons file for a comparison, if you are still unfamiliar.

1. Write a function to unlock a door, but only if the user enters an odd number (as a password).

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/DoorSingletons.hs#L65-L65

unlockDoor :: Int -> Door 'Locked -> Maybe (Door 'Closed)

It should return a closed door in Just if the caller gives an odd number, or Nothing otherwise.

2. Write a function that can open any door, taking a password, in “implicit Sing” style:

-- source: https://github.com/mstksg/inCode/tree/master/code-samples/singletons/DoorSingletons.hs#L70-L70

openAnyDoor :: SingI s => Int -> Door s -> Maybe (Door 'Opened)

This should be written in terms of unlockDoor and openDoor (see above) – that is, you should not use UnsafeMkDoor directly for openAnyDoor.

If the door is already unlocked or opened, it should ignore the Int input.

1. This series will be based on a talk I gave over the summer, and will expand on it.↩︎

2. The ' ticks are technically optional, but I find that it’s good style, at this point in Haskell, to use them whenever you can. It’ll prevent a lot of confusion, trust me!↩︎

3. Indeed, this is not even possible. There are no values of type 'SClosed, 'SOpened, etc.↩︎

4. Actually, GADT syntax just requires -XGADTSyntax, but -XGADT allows you to actually make GADTs (which we will be doing later), and implies -XGADTSyntax↩︎

5. ~ here refers to “type equality”, or the constraint that the types on both sides are equal. s ~ 'Opened can be read as “s is 'Opened”.↩︎

6. It is probably worth mentioning that, for practical reasons, the implementation of singleton’s withSingI is very different than the implementation we used for our withSingDSI`. However, understanding its implementation isn’t really relevant understanding how to use the library, so we won’t really go to deep into this.↩︎

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• This entry is a part of a series called "Introduction to Singletons". Find the rest of the entries in this series at its series history.